The ‘Fat Turkish’ Boy’s Journey To Headship

Written by @HalilMrT1–  Halil Tamgumus

A wise man recently told me to write this blog, so I have, my first attempt at doing so (so please be gentle).

I am currently listening to an audiobook (another first). It’s called “Natives – Race and class in the ruins of Empire by Akala. I haven’t finished listening to it all yet but by chapter 5 I was crying. This, the same wise man as before assures me, is grief.  I am grieving. He is right I am.

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When I first joined Twitter in June 2018, I came a little late to this particular social networking party, I felt then as I did when I first started secondary school. Lost, a little confused and not able to find my place. I was the only Turkish Cypriot child in a school that, still to this day, sits in a predominantly white working-class area of Leicester. I felt different. Not because I was because we are all unique right? But because I was made to feel different – by my peers and for the most part the teachers.

Ironically – one of my first “proper” tweets was me asking if there were any other Turkish headteachers out there. I mean seriously, I cringe as I type this. It seems a bit desperate doesn’t it?…but I was reaching out for a connection – someone like me. No joy as of yet.

Luckily, as fate would have it, I found Pran Patel,  my lahmacun loving brother from another mother.

As a 12-year-old boy growing up in Leicester, my family would tick every stereotype there was for Turkish/Greek/Cypriot people. My dad owned a kebab shop (tick), a massive extended family (tick) and an obsession with food which borders the ridiculous (tick).

As you can imagine a young lad … from a food-obsessed family, living above and working in a kebab shop (some of my fondest memories as a child were of my dad and I prepping salad together for the busy night ahead in the shop – the place where he talked to me about life and what it was like for him as a youngster) it was inevitable that I would end up a little bit larger than the average child of 12 years old. By the age of 18, I was tipping the scales at… Ahem, 21 stones… ahem.

And so I was known by the school bullies, “friends” and adults in the staff room I’m sure of it, as the fat Turkish boy.

It’s on this phrase that I need to dwell on. Just for a little while. Although it was part accurate, what purpose did the label serve? I mean yeah, ok, I was overweight, actually, I would have been classed as morbidly obese in today’s currency.

But what has my ethnicity got to do with anything. Why didn’t it end at just being called the fat boy?

Why the Turkish part? The fat Turk?

Actually, I’m Turkish Cypriot and Turkish Cypriots will adamantly tell you they are not Türkiyeli i.e from Turkey. The reasons for this are deep-rooted and needs a blog on its own to be explained.

My opinion (and that’s all it is), for those that called me that phrase must have felt a sense of power over me when they said it. By degrading my heritage, my background, my culture and by proxy my self worth they would imply that their self worth, being and belonging was more important than mine.

But listening to Akala say the following words it all becomes a little clearer “I am because you are not” I am better than you, more important than you because you are not important.

But listening to Akala say the following words it all becomes a little clearer “I am because you are not” I am better than you, more important than you because you are not important.

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He goes on to state that, in a strange way, people who are put down by racism should feel quite flattered. And by looking back I do. I mean if I was so insignificant and so unimportant why spend so much time on me and other children from different ethnic backgrounds and with a different colour of skin to their own?

Wow. If I had this in my locker as a kid…wow. I would have been stronger for it. But I was too busy feeling sorry for myself.

I knew from an early age I had a different wit to my peers. An acid tongue, a sharp brain (although age has worn that away a bit) and a decent sense of humour. It’s the humour that got me through relatively unscathed physically during my secondary school years.

I only got into one notable fight in which Richard, a local black boy (if I remember correctly both his parents were from Jamaica) 3 years my senior, “backed me up” because “we have to stick together” as he put it. I’ll never forget that moment. He knew. He got it. He saved me actually because I was in no way equipped to win the fight. But I would have held on to the chain my grandmother gave me with my life. I would have died for it. It had a small pendant with the Turkish Cypriot flag. Exactly like the flag on my father’s headstone. The tears roll down my face as I write this – the connection is real.

My father needs his own blog. A socialist, a protestor, he believed in power to the people and education for all. He was the kindest man I have ever known. If you needed to borrow money from him and he didn’t have it he’d take a loan out so that he could give it to you! An angel and that’s not me being biased. When word got out that my dad was seriously Ill customers that used to go to his shop would knock on his door to see him. They would come to the ward, where he would stay whilst the doctors did tests on him, and bring him cards, flowers and chocolates. My hero.

I used humour in a way that I have seen other Poc and people of other ethnicities use. I used it until recently, to defuse awkward situations. Or to laugh at me about myself before others had a chance to. Take the wind out of their sails. I mean I grew up hating my name. Halil Tamgumus. I mean what a mouthful (ironic it was too many mouthfuls that helped me to my not so fighting heavyweight!).

Translated from Turkish, Halil means good friend and Tamgumus means pure silver. Growing up I’d have to listen to some of the strangest pronunciations of my name. Register …oh my days just the thought of it make my toes curl. Habeel…no sir it’s Halil…Hamil …no sir it’s Halil (can’t he read? – phonetics not his strongest suit?) Hakeel. Seriously, I’d think to myself, we haven’t even got to my second name yet, please God, if there was ever a time for the ground to open up now was that time.

I remember going to the doctor’s to pick up my dad’s prescription when I was younger. He had high blood pressure which partly came from him being the proprietor of a business and mainly due to my mother*. At the age of 13, I stood at the reception and the receptionist tried to pronounce my name. She got it spectacularly wrong – Halul tomangmouse – I mean really – so instead of correcting her. I said ” I’m sorry about my name, I completely blame my parents (insert eye roll here) there not from here” she laughed. Where I got those words from and why I decided to put them in that order I cannot tell you. All I know it was a lot less awkward than having my name, which I detested anyway, pronounced incorrectly.

Now. I’m proud of my name. And so are my two beautiful children it’s a strong name. And it is powerful. It comes from a beautiful group of people from a beautiful country. It withstood the test of a war and the subsequent crown colonisation under Britain (where divide and rule was the order of the day). It was passed on to me and my sister and now it belongs to my children. My father’s unbreakable desire to do good will live on through our actions. I hope he’s proud. I hope he knows.

My name is Halil Tamgumus and that is what I shall be called.

*I could tell you things about my mother but you wouldn’t believe me. That’s one part of my life that could be turned into a film. One of those “you couldn’t make it up” things.

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Somali Poetry: Resources for a SOW

This piece is also found here https://terraglowach.wordpress.com/2019/08/28/somali-poetry-resources-for-a-sow/ by Terra Glowach.

Rationale

This year I want to develop a year 8 poetry SOW on Somali poetry. Why?

  1. Somalia is known as The Nation of Poets in Africa, and has a long tradition of oral poetry which is enjoyed and created by all. I want to challenge students who see poetry writing as an artistically elitist or narcissistic endeavour, from which the pragmatic shy away. So the Somali tradition is a gift.
  2. I have a large cohort of Somali students, and I want to recognise and share the cultural capital they offer.
  3. The bulk of racism I have witnessed here in Bristol has been aimed at Somalis – being both black and Muslim, they take the brunt of our media’s racism and Islamophobia. It’s my job as a white ally and a teacher to promote appreciation and respect over ignorance and hate.

The bulk of racism I have witnessed here in Bristol has been aimed at Somalis – being both black and Muslim, they take the brunt of our media’s racism and Islamophobia. It’s my job as a white ally and a teacher to promote appreciation… Click To Tweet

Context

The context I would recommend for time-poor teachers is Al Jazeera World’s documentary on Somalia before the civil war, and since. The two-part documentary, Somalia: The Forgotten Story, can be watched online in classrooms. As English teachers, we must balance context with content, and so I would recommend the opening of the documentary which gives crucial cultural context, and only sections you deem appropriate and necessary on the war. I will focus on those which challenge dominant perceptions.

A fascinating account of early Somali-British relations is recounted first hand here in the diary of Somali seafarer Ibrahim Ismaa’il: from Cardiff to the Cotswolds.

Finally, an enlightening documentary on traditional and modern diaspora poetry is Somalia: Nation of Poets, which includes incendiary and beautiful poetry in Somali (subtitled) and English.

Poetry

The Poetry Translation Centre is a trove of diaspora poetry written in the original language, with initial and final translations on offer so you can explore how meaning is distilled in the process, and also use the original in a class with Somali speakers to explore key terms via translanguaging. This could be a powerful way to introduce theme and context, as well as explore the use of sound, and how translators have worked to preserve sound features.

Some background on metre may be of use. Here’s an excerpt from Martin Orwin and Maxamed Cabdullaahi Riiraash’s ‘An Approach to Relationships between Somali Metre Types’, published in African Languages and Cultures, Vol. 10, No. 1 (1997), pp. 83-100

The study of Somali metrics was revolutionized in the mid-1970s with the publication, in the Somali national newspaper Xiddigta Oktoobar, October Star, of a number of seminal articles by the two Somali scholars and poets Maxamed Xaashi Dhamac ‘Gaarriye’ (referred to in this article as Gaarriye, except for bibliographical reference) and Cabdullaahi Diiriye Guuleed, who made the long-awaited breakthrough in Somali metrical studies, apparently independently. These two scholars noted that Somali poetry scanned by counting vowel units, or moras, which were arranged in specific patterns according to genre. In other words, they showed that Somali has a quantitative metrical system in which only the vowels count, and that the lines of different genres vary in the number and pattern of those moras. They also differed a little in their approaches to understanding the metre, but all subsequent work on Somali metrics…is founded on these original articles. Since the mid-1970s, further work on Somali metrics has been ongoing and now the patterns of individual metres are well understood, as are the rules by which various vowel sequences may count as long or short. The most recent studies on Somali metrics (Johnson 1996,Banti & Giannattasio 1996) have included work on the musical aspects of the performance of poetry, which has deepened our understanding of the link between the rhythmic aspects of performance and the realization of the abstract, metrical patterns in certain verse instances.

In short, it would be wise to examine stress, assonance and rhythm when looking at Somali poetry, as with any poetry which is meant to be encountered in voice rather than text. As students will be reading the poetry in English, I will only touch on the complexity of genres and moras to develop the sense of tradition.

Maxamed Ibraahin Warsame ‘Hadraawi’ is a good place to start, being regarded as ‘the greatest living Somali poet’. I would use ‘Settling the Somali Language‘ to establish the link between identity and language, and explore tensions around the dominance of English. Important ideas here linking to the documentary Somalia: Nation of Poets.

The work of Maxamed Xaashi Dhamac ‘Gaarriye’  is an excellent example of the power of poetry. Note this excerpt from a Guardian article:

The power of verse to cause social upheaval is not something we’re very familiar with in the UK, but in Somali culture it’s taken for granted. One poet starts a theme, others take it up, then a chain develops, drawing people into the arguments. “I wrote something against tribalism that became an attack on the president,” Gaarriye explains. “Within four months the chain was more than 70 poems long.” And that was when the secret police came to visit. Shortly afterwards he fled to Ethiopia and an exile that lasted until 1991.

His poem ‘Seer‘ explores the nature of poetry through repeated metaphors.

Asha Lul’s ‘Harmony‘, is a strong example of the speaker’s embodied knowledge of her land, and uses both imagery and sound symbolism to locate the reader in a vivid sensory experience of Somalia. I would abridge and use the first verse – it’s a long one.

On love and self-knowledge, many students will relate to ‘Taste‘, and both the sense imagery and topic will yield rich discussion.

Looking at poetry written in English by the diaspora, my first experience was Warsan Shire’s ‘Home‘. This video, with simple but emotive animation, featuring Shire’s breaking voice is likely to bring a class to tears. I totally lose it EVERY TIME. Warning: there are references to rape and use of the N-word, and I cut these bits when teaching the poem to years 7 and 8.

Finally, I will use a poem entitled ‘Sheffield Children’s Hospital’ from Warda Yassin‘s seering collection Tea with Cardamom. You can buy the collection at Waterstones or online. The poem itself is two seven-line stanzas about a boy pretending to be a man, who swears that “people only care when you are stabbed, in prison, or dead.” Like many of Yassin’s poems, this one forces you to imagine the details in order to put the story together, and uses some Somali words to hold hands with heritage as you traverse a terrifying new terrain.

Actual lessons and questions will be shared when I’ve learned more. At this point I need feedback and suggestions from those with a good knowledge of Somali poetry. At the moment I have six poems, but looking to expand with suggestions.

It’s OK to be Anxious.

Written by @Joanner79Jo

Originally posted here https://mymusingsoneducationcounselingandcreatingafairersociety.wordpress.com

I have never blogged before but having seen a number of tweets expressing anxiety about the new academic year I thought I’d give it a go.

I am prompted to write my first blog after reading a number of tweets expressing anxiety and nerves about the new academic year. I too experience anxiety at this time of year, despite 20 years of teaching and entering my seventh year as head, so I have been thinking about the reasons why.

I guess really I want to reassure. I honestly believe that being anxious is fine! Our job matters. In some ways it should give you sleepless nights, not because you are worried about your school’s position in the league tables or because this year is an OFSTED year but because you are being trusted to educate young people. It doesn’t matter whether you are teaching in Nursery or Year 13, the job comes with a huge amount of responsibility so if you are going to survive it you need to care. I hope though that your anxiety is also tempered by excitement whatever your current role in school. I can’t wait to get to know my new Early Years Children and their families but am also excited to work with my NQTS and further develop ethical leadership at all levels. Of course alongside the excitement is anxiety but isn’t that the point?

Although it might appear flippant to suggest sleepless nights are okay, I want to make it clear. I do not want anyone to feel so anxious they cannot sleep and their long term health to suffer, but I do want everyone involved in… Click To Tweet

Although it might appear flippant to suggest sleepless nights are okay, I want to make it clear. I do not want anyone to feel so anxious they cannot sleep and their long term health to suffer, but I do want everyone involved in education to be motivated not by their personal ambition but by the desire to make the world a fairer place for all children. This means there will be times when you spend hours thinking and pondering on the child you are finding it most difficult to reach or even how to bring in a balanced budget without yet another restructure. You will occasionally wake up at 3 am in the morning worried about the child with a Child Protection Plan, or with what you think is an amazing idea for a whole school street party, (not realising that that alone is enough to give your long suffering Deputy her own sleepless nights) and the night before results day, whatever level, is likely to be pretty tough. However, what I have learnt and what helps me generally sleep at night is knowing that I generally have done my best. I cannot fix everything and nor can you. I cannot fix affordable housing for my families living in overcrowded and temporary accommodation but I can listen, make phone calls and adapt my policies to recognise what an achievement it is for some children to get to school at all let alone on time. I can’t overcome every challenge and barrier faced by my children with SEND but I can listen to them and their parents, I can try and walk in their shoes and if this means changing my uniform policy to accommodate a child’s hypersensitivity to certain fabrics or bringing in whole school training on attachment and trauma to better understand our Looked After Children, then I will.

I will do all I can to reduce teacher work load but not at the expense of the children. It is a hard job – there are different points in the year when we are all on our knees, but it is also the best job. If my staff come to me with ideas for reducing planning I will of course listen, but nor will I just go down the route of doing something because it is easier for staff. Our curriculum needs to be responsive to my community and relevant to their experiences and interests. This year we are working on children seeing themselves in the books they read and the history they study and this has of course created work for class teachers and subject leads. I make no apologies for this. I do all I can to provide time for leaders to lead and teachers to teach but ultimately, well our kids get one shot at this so it needs to be the best it can possibly be.

I guess in conclusion, what I am trying to say in my clumsy way, is that it is okay to be anxious and nervous. I’d be pretty surprised if you weren’t. However, find ways to live with yourself and look after yourself. You’re anxious because you are in a profession that cares passionately about getting it right for our children. If you find yourself becoming overwhelmed talk to someone, anyone. But also, embrace the nerves and the worry, it’s what drives us all to keep getting better.

‘Not Racist’ = Racist

When we live in a world that is so imbalanced with respect to power. It is easy to stay quiet while witnessing oppression. In fact, I would say that the whole system is built by this process.

What are you talking about Pran? These are good people that you’re implying are being racist. My main issue with well-meaning people is their silence and therefore their complicity. Yes, my tone may be a little hostile, but please bear with me.

If I were to tell you that people of colour in this country (the UK) in 2019 are discriminated against in terms of education, healthcare, and employment, etc. Many well-meaning people would disagree with me. Even when faced with the bare facts and cold hard data, often people tend to question its authenticity, deny its existence and cite personal anecdotes, it goes on.

If I were to tell you that people of colour in this country (the UK) in 2019 are discriminated against in terms of education, healthcare, and employment, etc. Many well-meaning people would disagree with me. Even when... Click To Tweet

This is or may be described as white fragility (please google the work of Robin Di Angelo if you are unaware of this term). However, I believe this questioning (and fragility) is partly caused by the deliberate act of unknowing. The act of questioning data, the direct testimony of people of colour, even judicial reviews, etc. not only fogs the issue but it gives all in power a get out of jail free card.

As a man, I benefit from patriarchal structures, it is difficult for me to accept that I live in a world where I accept (through my silence) that women are treated worse than men. If I accept that this is wrong, if I accept that this happens, I have to then consequently accept that this is okay by me because after all I have benefited and continue to benefit from this imbalance. The easiest option here is to deny the existence of this power.

This denial and self-protection are normally expressed in the form of defensive moves.

‘These moves include the outward display of emotions such as anger, fear, and guilt, and behaviours such as argumentation, silence, and leaving the stress-inducing situation. These behaviours, in turn, function to reinstate white racial equilibrium.’

Robin Di Angelo White Fragility

There have been many narratives that have been deliberately used to excuse people in power. There are parallels here with the justifications for slavery;

1. Slaves were grateful to their benevolent slave masters for the opportunities to work in the “new world“. This denies the existence or minimises the impact of their experience.

2. Slavery has often been based on scripture, once you assign meaning to a higher power, it is no longer our responsibility as human beings it is the responsibility of God. This becomes a holy duty. This is a textbook example of passing the blame.

3. People of colour are heathens and savages. Thus it falls to the white man and the ‘white man’s burden’ (Rudyard Kipling, the colonialist writer of the jungle book and the poem by the same name) to civilise them, bring them democracy and ‘help’ them. This is how the white saviourism/white saviour complex is often justified.

4. People of colour are of different races, ‘the Negroid race is a form of great ape species’, 3 and 4 both serve to dehumanise people of colour. This narrative is the most powerful, good people would and could not, treat other human beings in this way but as soon as we don’t see them as humans or lower forms of humans. Things look different.

Within education, let me quote some statements I have heard and read over the years;

‘These black inner-city children need strict structures, this is absent in their home lives. It’s our responsibility to provide this at school.’

‘My vocation is to help these poor children. (from a score of middle-class people who have moved to London).’

‘We are all these pupils have, their parents don’t even speak to them in English, how are they ever going to move forward in life.’

‘If parents aren’t going to give these children the cultural capital, as a school has to, it is our social responsibility to show them the great work of Shakespeare’

‘These kids need training (behaviour) their parents don’t have the skills to do it.’

‘These kids from the estate are like animals.’

‘These pupils need punitive measures, it is the only way they learn.’

The longer we accept this narrative, and I know that we benefit from them, it makes life easier. It makes life easier for us, those in power and firmly put people of colour or any protected characteristic in their place.

This pervades throughout society, we have one of two options, we choose to continue with the current structure (racist structures) or we choose another way (anti-racist). The act of saying ‘I am not racist…’ is silence. Thus yes, not acknowledging, staying silent or not fighting against these narratives, leaves you duplicitously complicit, yes, this leaves you a racist.

This pervades throughout society, we have one of two options, we choose to continue with the current structure (racist structures) or we choose another way (anti-racist) Click To Tweet

 

Race: What is RACISM? 

After various different challenges, let me set clear my position on racism. After a google search of the definition of racism the above appears, to base a phronetic definition of something so complex on a dictionary definition is fickle. Using the dictionary in this way is also problematic with the inception of its very concept. (More here in this great article https://everydayfeminism.com/2015/01/reverse-oppression-cant-exist/)

Reverse racism does not exist. I cannot say this enough. All oppression is when people from a collective exert their power over another. When I’m saying power, I’m talking systematic and systemic power. That means that member of the global majority can hate white people all they want, the chances of them impacting of their life chances, the healthcare they receive, the judicial system, even abuse in the street, etc. is minimal.

What do members of the global majority face? UCAS has admitted it has more ‘work to do’ because black students are 22 times more likely to have their university applications investigated. 2675/260,550 black applicants investigated compared to 995/2,127,965 white applications. Just look at those numbers, let it digest, this is the body in charge of the gateway to university.

A black person is ‘four times more likely to be sectioned under the Mental Health Act’. It’s not that simple (other factors are in play), however, when coupled with the deaths of members of the global majority in police custody (6 out of 11 from 4/17-12/17) this isn’t looking great.

With the chair of the IPPC (police watchdog) saying ‘We need to look closely between the relationship between ethnicity and the use of force.’ Stop and search also disproportionately targets black people, to the tune of 9 times more likely to stopped and searched compared to white counterparts. Before you accuse me of making this up I have referenced some examples below.

“Young black people were more likely to be identified with ‘gang concerns’ and be considered a ‘risk to others’ on entry to custody than any other ethnic group between April 2014 and March 2016.”
Exploratory analysis of 10-17 year olds in the youth secure estate by black and other minority ethnic groups September 2017. Ministry of Justice.

This is absolutely the worst, in 2006 the Healthcare Commission published its first ever national review, which noted ‘some disadvantaged groups are more likely than others to fail to receive services. As well as the elderly, there are also inequities in provision that particularly affect people with mental health problems from black and minority ethnic communities. So do not be poor, black, old and depressed in England right now, because you’re very unlikely to get treated.’

Before I go on, I will state race is social construct, the differences in biological terms are meaningless, physical differences in skin colour have no natural associations with group differences in ability or behaviour. (Clair and Denis)

For sake of more clarity, for members of the global majority to be racist, this means that they would benefit from privilege and the societal structures of the system, looking at the articles and the lived-in experience of many, this simply is not and cannot be the case.

Cazaneve & Maddern 1999 and A Sivananden 1993 both express racism in terms of social power which stems from the competition of resources.


“Contemporary sociology considers racism as individual – and group-level processes and structures that are implicated in the reproduction of racial inequality in diffuse and often subtle ways”

Sociology of Racism. Clair and Denis

Similarly Di Angelo state ‘Although mainstream definitions of racism are typically some variation of individual “race prejudice”, which anyone of any race can have, Whiteness scholars define racism as encompassing economic, political, social, and cultural structures, actions, and beliefs that systematize and perpetuate an unequal distribution of privileges, resources and power between white people and people of colour (Hil-liard, 1992)’

With the ‘processes and structures’ implying power and privilege and ‘reproduction of racial inequality’ implying discrimination, I conclude ‘Oppression = Privilege + Discrimination’ or Racism = Power + Discrimination.

 

 

Empirically, and this is an honest challenge, I am unaware of a single case of a race crime brought by the CPS to a member of the GM against a white person. A high profile case against Mustata Bahar was dropped after an incendiary tweet was unearthed, yet no charges around race were considered (see link below).

Yes, this may make you feel uncomfortable. This is a natural reaction to the challenge of a collectivist mindset. Hope this has made you think.

When I challenged, actually I was challenged to acknowledge my male lens on the world, I exhibited male fragility, however this was temporary. Hopefully this clears up the definitions of racism.

References and Further Reading

https://everydayfeminism.com/2015/01/reverse-oppression-cant-exist/

https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/matthewclair/files/sociology_of_racism_clairandenis_2015.pdf

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/nov/03/bahar-mustafa-charges-dropped-killallwhitemen-row

Sivanandan, A. 1993, ‘Race against time: there isn’t just one form of racism in Britain, but two’, New Statesman & Society, vol.6, no.274, p16.

Cazenave, N. A. & Maddern, D. A. 1999, ‘Defending the White Race: White Male Faculty

Opposition to a White Racism Course’, Race and Society, vol. 2, pp. 25-50.

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/dec/02/revealed-the-stark-evidence-of-everyday-racial-bias-in-britain

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/education-news/black-students-university-uk-racism-ucas-application-a8376501.html

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-40495539

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/jan/07/ipcc-concerned-about-rise-in-ethnic-minority-deaths-following-police-restraint

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/stop-search-black-people-white-police-racism-new-study-a8583051.html

Black people in England and Wales are almost nine times more likely than whites to be stopped and searched for drugs, according to a report.

http://www.civitas.org.uk/pdf/QuiteLikeHeaven.pdf

“So do not be poor, black, old and depressed in England right now, because you’re very unlikely to get treated.” p48

https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/641481/Exploratory-analysis-of-10-17-year-olds-in-the-youth-secure-estate-by-bame-groups.pdf p8

https://libjournal.uncg.edu/ijcp/article/viewFile/249/116